Tally Automation
Apr 3, 2024

Non-Performing Assets (NPAs): The Silent Killer of Loan Success - Don't Let It Haunt You!

Vijay Sardhara



In today's data-driven world, understanding financial health is necessary for both businesses and lenders.

As an accounting automation brand, we're dedicated to providing financial clarity and financial management tools. That's why we're focusing on NPAs. NPA full form is Non-Performing Assets - loans that cease generating income when borrowers miss payments.

NPAs can have significant consequences, impacting borrowers' credit scores and lenders' profitability by tying up capital.

Let's delve deeper into what NPAs are, why they matter, and how they affect both sides of the financial equation.

What Makes an Asset Non-Performing?

Understanding how loans turn into NPAs is crucial for both borrowers and lenders. Here, we'll delve deeper into the factors that trigger an NPA classification and explore the different categories used to assess the severity of the situation.

From Scheduled Payment to Non-Performing Asset

Not every missed payment results in an immediate NPA tag. Loan agreements typically have a grace period for late payments, allowing borrowers some leeway. However, things escalate if repayments remain overdue for a specific timeframe. This timeframe, often set by regulatory bodies or internal bank policies, is usually around 90 days.

Once a loan surpasses this threshold of overdue payments on principal or interest, it gets classified as a non-performing asset. This classification signifies a heightened risk for the lender as the borrower isn't meeting their financial obligations.

Classifying the Severity of NPAs

Not all NPAs are created equal. The longer a loan remains overdue, the greater the risk of default increases. To assess the severity of the situation and potential for recovery, banks categorize NPAs into different classifications.

Here's a breakdown of these categories:

  • Standard Assets: These represent the least severe category of NPAs. In this category, the loan repayments are overdue for a period ranging from 90 days to 12 months. While a cause for concern, there's a chance the borrower can get back on track with repayments.

  • Sub-Standard Assets: If a loan remains overdue for more than a year (typically exceeding 12 months), it falls under the substandard category. This indicates a significantly higher risk for the lender. The borrower's ability to repay becomes more questionable, and the bank might take stricter measures to collect the debt.

  • Doubtful Debts: These are NPAs where the borrower's repayment is highly uncertain. Here, the loan has been non-performing for at least 18 months, and the bank has serious doubts about recovering the full amount. Banks may initiate aggressive collection efforts or consider restructuring the loan to improve repayment chances.

  • Loss Assets: This category represents the most severe classification of NPAs. These are essentially loans with a very low probability of repayment. Typically, they have been overdue for a significant period (often exceeding 3 years), and the bank has exhausted most recovery options. Loss assets are often written off the bank's books, meaning the bank acknowledges the unlikelihood of recouping the funds.

By understanding NPA classifications, both borrowers and lenders can assess the seriousness of a non-performing loan. Borrowers can take steps to improve their repayment history and avoid further downgrades, while lenders can make informed decisions about debt collection, restructuring, or potential loss provisions.

Impact of NPAs on Borrowers

Having a loan turn into a Non-Performing Asset (NPA) can be a significant blow to a borrower's financial well-being. Here's how NPAs can negatively impact borrowers:

  • Credit Score Tarnish: One of the most immediate consequences of an NPA is a damaged credit score. Late payments are reported to credit bureaus, significantly lowering your creditworthiness. This can make it difficult to secure loans or credit cards in the future, and if you do qualify, you might face higher interest rates and stricter terms.

  • Limited Loan Options: Borrowers with NPAs on their credit report become less attractive to lenders. Banks and financial institutions become wary of lending to them due to the perceived higher risk of default. This can significantly restrict a borrower's access to future funding, hindering their ability to grow a business or manage personal finances.

  • Debt Collection Hassles: Once a loan becomes an NPA, the lender will likely initiate debt collection activities. This can involve phone calls, letters, and even legal action. These efforts can be stressful and add financial strain, especially if the borrower is already struggling to make repayments.

  • Negotiation Challenges: In some cases, borrowers may try to negotiate with the lender to restructure the loan or find a repayment solution. However, having an NPA on their record weakens their bargaining power. The lender might be less willing to negotiate favorable terms due to the increased risk associated with the borrower.

Impact of NPAs on Lenders

Non-performing assets (NPAs) pose a significant threat to the financial health and stability of lenders. Here's how NPAs can negatively impact lenders:

  • Reduced Profitability: NPAs represent loans that are no longer generating income for the lender. This translates to a loss of interest income, a crucial revenue stream for banks and financial institutions. As the number of NPAs increases, a lender's overall profitability can suffer significantly.

  • Capital Erosion: Banks are required to set aside a portion of their capital as provisions against potential loan losses, including NPAs. This reduces the amount of capital available for lending to new borrowers, hindering the bank's growth and ability to generate new income streams.

  • Reputational Risk: High levels of NPAs can damage a lender's reputation. Investors and depositors might lose confidence in the bank's ability to manage risk effectively. This can lead to capital flight and make it more expensive for the bank to raise funds.

  • Liquidity Issues: NPAs tie up a lender's capital, making it less liquid. This can create challenges in meeting short-term financial obligations and affect the bank's ability to respond to unexpected financial needs.

  • Increased Operating Costs: Managing NPAs involves additional costs for lenders. This includes expenses related to debt collection efforts, legal proceedings, and restructuring loans in an attempt to recover funds.

NPAs: A Threat for Both Sides, But Automation Can Help

NPAs are a double-edged sword, hurting borrowers' credit scores and lenders' profitability.

Borrowers should prioritize on-time payments and explore solutions if facing difficulties. Lenders need robust risk assessment and early intervention strategies.

Accounting automation empowers both sides with real-time data and insights to manage NPAs effectively, fostering a healthier financial environment.

Recent Blogs

blog-img-₹eady, Set, File! The Ultimate ITR Survival Guide
₹eady, Set, File! The Ultimate ITR Survival Guide
Vijay Sardhara


blog-img-How Forensic Audits Can Save Your Indian Business
How Forensic Audits Can Save Your Indian Business
Raja Ray